Society and Discourse: How Social Contexts Influence Text and Talk
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The main thesis of this theory is that the influence of society on discourse is not direct, as is postulated for instance in sociolinguistics, but cognitively mediated by subjective mental models of the communicative situation: context models. These dynamic models control discourse production and comprehension and define the pragmatic appropriateness of text and talk. Shaw, , p. In the next two samples , education is categorized as a special benevolence of a father to his children 5 and as an imposition of a penalty for a child 6 :. The CDI of evaluation within contexts of sociocultural knowledge represents a variety of meanings on a broad scale of assessment valuation standards.
In the next sample 7 , within the context of knowledge about professional and social duties, the speaker activates meaning "not to keep one's word is bad":. Within the context of knowledge about men-women relationships, the meaning that is activated by the speaker the King's son in 8 represents the norms that are relevant in a particular country Siam, for example :. The examples illustrate that statically contexts of knowledge serve as scopes of predication , in Langacker's terms , that provide a profile and a base , where the profile designates a conceptual structure within a larger unit, the base.
Dynamically, they hold a variety of meanings participants make in the process of discourse construction that reflect their individual knowledge. In discourse, lexical concepts provide access to it relating to particular activities and spheres of life, i. The static vs. Collective vs. We believe that collective knowledge, i. For psychiatrists, for example, it is common psychiatric practice to employ a mental status examination that allows the clinician to make an accurate diagnosis for coherent treatment planning. The practice to participate in a clinical assessment process irrespective of the time, place, etc.
We acknowledge that individuals belonging to the same language group carry collective representations of their environment. Regarding the next example, for any speaker of English the word hold is associated with the idea of "keeping or supporting something or somebody with hands or arms or another part of the body" Gadsby, , p.
It is the very context of collective knowledge that the child activates in the next sample 10 :. Lenny child : No, it is not that heavy Findlater, , p. The ability to produce and comprehend metaphorical language is constrained primarily by limitations in children's knowledge and information processing abilities. The teacher, in turn, activates the context of collective knowledge that is represented by the language unit hold somebody's hand which is associated with the idea of "touching and remaining unchanged", "not carrying or taking somewhere" Gadsby, , p.
For example:. The old man looked surprised, and said, "Why, it was an ambulance" Findlater, , p. The same interplay of contexts of collective and contexts of individual, i. Pupil: Before Calculators Findlater, , p. The teacher in 12 activates the context of collective knowledge represented by the abbreviation B. Jenny: I enjoyed it a lot. Did you like it? Is it missing?
The dentist grinned.
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That'll be 25 pounds, please" Findlater, , p. What can you give me to keep it in? The patient in 16 expects the context of professional knowledge from the doctor; the doctor, however, activates the collective knowledge represented by the word keep "to continue to be in a particular place or condition" Gadsby, , p. By activating different conceptual-and-thematic domains, the speakers represent their sociocultural knowledge they acquire throughout life.
The interplay of conventionally assumed knowledge and individual knowledge is instantiated by universal structures - metaconcepts that are described next. The metaconceptual dimension of contexts. The metaconcepts Roles, Stereotypes, Values, Norms, Space, Time, Language Performance serve as 'filters' through which the static dimension of contexts of knowledge becomes dynamic ; collective - transforms into individual. The metaconcepts are claimed to be mental structures that reflect overall knowledge human beings posses, process, and acquire.
Irrespective of the country in which human beings live, the territory they occupy, languages they speak, or space and time boundaries, they learn values and norms, adopt stereotypes, agree or disagree about them, and construct discourse profiling the type of context they believe or feel relevant to the communicative situation.
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In speech, the metaconcepts are instantiated by the CDI of selection, classification and evaluation that activate contexts of sociocultural knowledge of language speakers. In the next sample 19 , the ROLE of the language speaker is that of a correspondent who activates the context of professional knowledge about Mass Media Speech Etiquette:. Oshie scored four times in the shootout and got the winner in the eight round, leading the United States past Russia Saturday in the thrilling revival of an Olympic hockey rivalry Costa, Consider the next sample 20 :.
Pickering: this chap has a certain natural gift of rhetoric. Observe the rhythm of his native woodnotes wild. That's the Welsh strain in him. It also accounts for his mendacity and dishonesty Shaw, , p. In 20 the speaker of English activates his beliefs grounded on his experience with representatives of other cultural backgrounds.
The metaconcept VALUES provides guidelines for the speakers' behavior and sets of expectations, as in the next sample 21 :. I thought these [flowers] would enliven things a little. The walls are even a little damp, are they not, Mr Stevens? But this is not a room of entertainment. I am happy to have distractions kept to a minimum' Ishiguro, , p. Stevens ; ii categorizing the event in terms of making one's life better and bright Miss Kenton and negative judgments Mr.
Stevens evaluation. The metaconcept NORMS sets rules or standards of behavior that can be incorporated within the individual, or may be enforced from without:. Oh, don't be silly. You mustn't speak to the gentleman like that. Well, why won't he speak sensible to me? The violation of norms of politeness as a context of knowledge of symmetrical communicative strategies marks Liza's discourse human being - to human being.
Pearce ; ii categorizing the event in terms of inappropriate behavior; iii expressing dissatisfaction evaluation. Sochi's Olympic officials, who are attending a sports seminar in the Malawian capital Blantyre this week, said on their Web site that they had chosen the year-old FC Rostov striker for his worldwide appeal, especially in Africa.
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The striker briefly played for Lokomotiv Moscow in before returning to Rostov in the off season. In 23 the context of knowledge of the bidding process for the Games that took part in the past is activated via past verb forms. The year-old, who has finished third in two majors, grew up in Hawaii but has Korean parents. Consider the next sample 25 :. How do you do? How d'you do? My son Henry. Your celebrated son!
I have so longed to meet you, Professor Higgins.
Society and Discourse - Teun A Van Dijk - Bok () | Bokus
In 25 the context of knowledge about how to officially greet people is activated. Though, greeting exchange may take a number of forms including:. To compare, in the next sample 26 , the language of medicine offering intriguing challenges to non-professionals is used:. Sociocultural Commitment of Cognitive Linguistics provides an account of language which is cognitive and social.
Society and Discourse: How Social Contexts Influence Text and Talk
Sociocultural Commitment of Cognitive Linguistics can be revealed via context dimensions. Statically , contexts represent conceptual-and-thematic domains as cognitive models encoded by language. Dynamically , they profile meanings participants make as the result of the interpretive process of selection, classification and evaluation that constitute the cognitive-discursive interpretant.