Levels of Personality

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In the present study, the mean of extraversion at time 1 was 3. The mean of agreeableness at time 1 was 3. The mean of conscientiousness at time 1 was 3. The mean of emotional stability at time 1 was 3. The mean of openness at time 1 was 3. The mean of social desirability at time 1 was 5. A correlation matrix is provided in Table 2.

Interestingly, AA was not associated with any of the personality factor variables. In other words, there was significant inter-individual differences in initial levels of extraversion scores but not in growth trajectories.


A non-significant correlation between the intercept and the linear slope indicates that participants with higher initial values did not significantly show more decrease over time compared to participants with lower initial values. In other words, there was significant inter-individual differences in initial levels and in growth trajectories of agreeableness scores.

In other words, there was significant inter-individual differences in initial levels and in growth trajectories of conscientiousness scores. In other words, there was significant inter-individual differences in initial levels of emotional stability scores but not in growth trajectories.

In other words, there was significant inter-individual differences in initial levels of openness scores and in growth trajectories. The findings show there was no increase in the mean change of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience during 3 years of tertiary education. As was noted above, the personality of teachers have been found to influence student academic performance Bastian et al.

Downey et al. Pre-service teachers diminished growth, therefore is a cause for some concern. Plausible explanations for diminished growth include reduced motivation Martin, ; Metallidou and Vlachou, ; perceived value Metallidou and Vlachou, self-concept King and McInerney, , enjoyment, and self-efficacy beliefs Pinxten et al. According to Shin et al. Many countries including the United States have experienced problems attracting and retaining effective teachers.

Developing an understanding of the psychological profiles of pre-service teachers may help to better prepare teachers for the demands of the profession—and ultimately attract, support and retain effective teachers. Results indicate that AA was not significantly associated with any of the personality factor variables. As noted above, while the competitive and highly selective entry into teacher education is generally positively regarded UG pre-service teachers gained access to the program largely through prior AA on a standardized state run examination.

This is therefore a notable finding, because it suggests that personality development among students is something that would need to be addressed within programs, rather than through selection based on prior AA in order to promote desirable adult development. The relationship is positive those students who score higher on social desirability tended to report higher initial agreeableness and emotional stability scores. The association is a moderate association which explains a good proportion of the variance in initial levels of personality.

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It is possible that the relationship between social desirability and personality is moderate because this outcome is influenced by many different factors, such as IQ, motivation, and the influence of parents and peers. Prior research, particularly the conclusion that personality is not set in stone but instead continues to develop into adulthood, has implications for many important outcomes, including AA.

Personality, most notably the trait of conscientiousness, is known to be related to academic success and educational attainment. Indeed, the association between conscientiousness and academic performance is nearly as strong as that between intelligence and academic performance. Studies have shown that interventions are effective in altering personality factors, and these may be used to enhance factors that have a positive effect on educational outcomes. Study conception and design: RC. Acquisition of data: RC.

Analysis and interpretation of data: RC. Drafting of manuscript: RC. Critical revision: RC. Acquisition of data: JF. Drafting of manuscript: JF. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Adewale, O. Teaching personality as a necessary construct for the effectiveness of teaching and learning in schools: An implication for teacher development in the era of globalization. Allport, G. Personality: A Psychological Interpretation. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Google Scholar.

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