La Rédemption, quest-ce donc ? (French Edition)
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In his poetry Baudelaire represents himself as trapped and cries out in a despair that suggests his awareness of sin as a burden. Baudelaire is not a diabolic preacher; with C. Lewis, he would point out that Satan is part of the Christian cosmology. Baudelaire's "Doctrine of Correspondences" suggests a belief of sorts in a pattern for the world and in relationships between the physical world and a spiritual one. This view, probably influenced by Emanuel Swedenborg and viewed as an antecedent to symbolism, is presented in the poem "Correspondances.
Although he does not include a direct expression of faith in God or gods in the poem, Baudelaire's profoundly mystical belief in the world's fundamental unity is clear. Indeed, the subject of Baudelaire's faith has been much debated. The references to God and to Satan in his poems, letters, and intimate journals have been counted; the validity of his last rites has been weighed; his confession of faith to Nadar has been examined.
Most critics agree that Baudelaire's preoccupations are fundamentally Christian but that in Les Fleurs du mal he fails to embrace entirely Jesus Christ and his power of redemption. Debates about Baudelaire's Christianity have not resolved the matter, though, nor is a label for Baudelaire's faith necessarily desirable for reading his poetry. Les Fleurs du mal is best read on its own terms, with a respect for its complexity. The constant thrust of the collection is to impart to the reader an awareness of tension between the physically real and the spiritually ideal, of a hopeless but ever-renewed aspiration toward the infinite from an existence mired in sin on earth.
This thrust is evident in poems in which the speaker bemoans enslavement to the soul's "gouffre" abyss or to Beauty's fascinations, in which he cries out to Satan in rage, in which he delves into the sensual to escape the physical world, and in which he articulates a feeble hope in love's redemptive capacity and the possibility of unity. Baudelaire's ambiguous relationship with the material world and his desire for another world are evident in his poems about the city of Paris.
While some critics, notably Edward Kaplan, have argued that "Tableaux Parisiens," the section added to the edition of , shows a "conversion to the real world as it exists," critics such as F. In "Le Soleil" The Sun the poet walks the streets of Paris, but he appears to see the city as a literary text rather than on its physical terms.
Although he accumulates concrete details, Baudelaire again removes himself from the physical presence he is recording by recasting what he sees: "Je ne vois qu'en esprit tout ce camp de baraques. Baudelaire's reputation as the father of modern poetry about cities is largely based on the "Tableaux Parisiens," which describe the streets of Paris in such gritty detail; the importance of these street scenes for the poet, though, is that he usually plunges into them with the desire to transcend them. Baudelaire's theory of correspondences and his introduction of such topics as the city and the ugly side of man's nature to poetry in verse are responsible for the modern quality of Les Fleurs du mal.
Furthermore, Baudelaire's prosody is traditional: his alexandrines are no more loosened than those of the Romantics, and he uses a wide variety of classical forms. Even in his treatment of Romantic themes, however, Baudelaire is radical for his time. He imagines solitude not as a state of nature but as it happens in cities, presenting it in counterpoint to city crowds.
For Baudelaire the poet is endowed with special powers but is also a clumsy albatross "L'Albatros" or slothful sinner "Le Mauvais Moine".
No longer mournful meditation in picturesque settings, introspection turns ugly with Baudelaire, a guilty pleasure to be squeezed like "une vieille orange" an old orange , as Baudelaire asserts in "Au Lecteur. To traditional forms and traditional themes Baudelaire brought imagery and situations that had never before existed in French poetry.
The poet takes a walk with his beloved and concludes that, although time passes, his poetry will immortalize her. Unlike Pierre de Ronsard's poem on that classical theme, "Quand tu seras bien vielle" When You Are Very Old , however, Baudelaire's meditation is prompted by a human cadaver whose guts spill across the page, the poem graphically detailing the flies, vermin, and stink.
Just as he exploits grotesque physical details only to extract from them an "essence divine," so Baudelaire uses poetic convention while transforming it. Similarly, Baudelaire's use and mastery of traditional technique revolutionized French poetry by so clearly representing a unique sensibility.
In "Le Cygne," a poem detailing the poet's thoughts as he walks through a changing Paris, Baudelaire sensitively communicates modern anxiety and a modern sense of displacement. A series of repetitions compounds the initial sense of urgency. Syntax broken across stanzas conveys the reach of the poet's thoughts and observations as well as a sense of breathless haste. The speaker returns to the same thoughts—notably, a swan escaped from a zoo and Andromache, the wife of the Trojan hero Hector—and the use of exclamation points is heavy: he is obsessed and slightly frantic.
The gist of the speaker's meditations is that he is haunted by absences: by Paris as it is no longer, by the swan who has lost his native soil, by Andromache's losses. Those absences are present in this poem by virtue of Baudelaire's prosody. Andromache's fall into destitution is represented in the space caused by the enjambment between stanzas: ".
The lament of all who have suffered losses is emphasized by an enjambment that forces a quick draw of breath right before the end of the sentence and that accents the finality of "jamais" never at the beginning of the next sentence:. In Les Fleurs du mal traditional prosody and themes combine with novel thoughts and inspiration to create works of supreme originality.
The speaker returns to the same thoughts—notably, a swan escaped from a zoo and Andromache, the wife of the Trojan hero Hector—and the use of exclamation points is heavy: he is obsessed and slightly frantic. The gist of the speaker's meditations is that he is haunted by absences: by Paris as it is no longer, by the swan who has lost his native soil, by Andromache's losses.
Those absences are present in this poem by virtue of Baudelaire's prosody. Andromache's fall into destitution is represented in the space caused by the enjambment between stanzas: ". The lament of all who have suffered losses is emphasized by an enjambment that forces a quick draw of breath right before the end of the sentence and that accents the finality of "jamais" never at the beginning of the next sentence:.
Pensées de Blaise Pascal
In Les Fleurs du mal traditional prosody and themes combine with novel thoughts and inspiration to create works of supreme originality. Although there were not many reviews of the second edition of Les Fleurs du mal and not all of those published were favorable, Baudelaire became an established poet with its publication. Saint-Beuve—though he never did review Les Fleurs du mal —ranked him grudgingly among the leaders of a new generation of poets as he remarked that poets coming along seemed to be in the style of Hugo, Gautier, Banville, and "even Baudelaire.
Charles Asselineau in Charles Baudelaire: Sa vie et son oeuvre describes Baudelaire as accepted and blossoming with success after The taint of the trial and of his reputation was too strong, though, and Baudelaire thought it prudent to let his candidacy drop before he met with certain failure.
«Reconquête républicaine» : Gérard Collomb brise le silence
In the s Baudelaire diversified from poetry in verse to literary activity in several different spheres. The most significant of these essays was his definitive article on modern art. Baudelaire illustrates these principles by discussing in detail the interests and techniques of "CG," his designation for the artist who wished to remain anonymous, from his brush stroke to his Crimean War drawings for the Illustrated London News. Central to Baudelaire's estimation of Guys is that Guys is not an artist but is, rather, a man of the world.
For Baudelaire, a broad interest in the world as opposed to the restricted perspective that he associates with most "artistes" is crucial to interesting art. Along with this line of thought Baudelaire elaborates his notion of the dandy, who is not only the elegant dresser of usual associations but also a man of the world who lives according to the highest aesthetic principles.
Baudelaire also develops his ideas about "la foule," the crowd, which is the solitary artist's domain "as water is for the fish. In that last section, "Eloge du Maquillage" In Praise of Makeup , Baudelaire makes explicit two more concepts that are important to his ethos. Second, as a corollary to the importance he attaches to fashion, makeup, and the codes of the dandy, Baudelaire touches on his unromantic distaste for the natural.
Everything beautiful is beautiful by calculation, he opines. Art is necessary to correct the natural state of man, which on the physical level is unattractive and on the spiritual level is a state of original sin. By the early s Baudelaire had found a model for his ideals in the person of Guys, and he gave full expression to his artistic aesthetic in "Le Peintre de la vie moderne.
In he published twenty prose poems in La Presse. This landmark year marks a shift in his creative endeavors from poetry in verse to poetry in prose: thereafter most of his creative publications are prose poems. Baudelaire managed to write only fifty of the one hundred prose poems he had projected. Le Spleen de Paris is, as Baudelaire would say, a "singular" assemblage of works that represents an extremely ambitious literary project.
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In his correspondence he refers to the prose poems as a "pendant" a completion of to Les Fleurs du mal. Houssaye was the editor of L'Artiste and La Presse , which published some of the prose poems individually. Bertrand did not label his short pieces "prose poems," though: Baudelaire is the first poet to make a radical break with the form of verse by identifying nonmetrical compositions as poetry. Having mastered the forms of traditional verse, Baudelaire wanted to do nothing less than create a new language. Unlike Bertrand's "picturesque" topics, Baudelaire associates his new language with the modern topic of the city.
In contrast with the "architecture" of Les Fleurs du mal , these interconnections are presented without order. Le Spleen de Paris is modern in that it represents a break with traditional form, is about urban life, and is consciously without order.
MINISTÈRE : Définition de MINISTÈRE
It is worth noting that in his preface Baudelaire refers to the form of the work as "prose lyrique. Did Baudelaire succeed in his ambition to forge a new poetic language? Most critics have tended to discuss the themes of the poems rather than their form, however, accepting poetry in Baudelaire's wake as an attitude rather than a set of rules.
This collection, which has been growing in popularity among critics, still contains much to be explored. Baudelaire's poems in prose are short anecdotes, bitter satires, and reveries about unusual topics, including dogs, mud, aged tumblers, windows, widows, and poor people standing outside fancy eating establishments. Several critics, notably Pierre Emmanuel, have noted that there is more compassion in these works than in Baudelaire's poetry in verse. This compassion can take strange forms—the speaker of "Les Yeux des pauvres" The Eyes of the Poor is so moved by a family of poor people that he hates the companion he had loved for her lack of sympathy.
In fact, the speaker in "Mademoiselle Bistouri" concludes by praying to God—as opposed to the devil—to have pity on crazy people. Furthermore, while many of the prose poems are about ugliness, they often accept and possibly even transcend ugliness. As with Les Fleurs du mal , it would be a mistake to pigeonhole the poems in this collection, which unlike his first has no headings. As critics have noticed from the very beginning, however, the prose poems address banalities and travails of life quite differently from Les Fleurs du mal.
Le Spleen de Paris undoubtedly has had a significant influence on modern poetry. During the period in which he was seriously exploring prose poetry, Baudelaire experienced a series of financial disasters. He had sold his writings to Poulet-Malassis, who had gone bankrupt in La Presse stopped publishing his poetry in prose. Baudelaire arrived in Brussels on 24 April and checked into the Hotel du Grand Miroir, where he stayed, enduring a miserable sojourn, until his stroke in He did not even bother to deliver the entire talk.
In addition to the disappointment of the lecture series, Baudelaire did not make contact with Lacroix, who never accepted his invitations. Despite his unhappy situation, Baudelaire stayed on in Belgium, perhaps because he was hoping for a satirical book to come out of the stay, perhaps because he did not want to return to France without something to show for the trip, or perhaps because he could not pay his hotel bill. There was no effective cure for syphilis in his day, and so although he thought he was cured of it in the early s, his disease erupted in , and again in the spring of In letters from January he describes recurrent and distressing symptoms.
The doctors never mentioned syphilis in connection with his final illness, but it seems very likely that the cerebral hemorrhage of 15 March was caused by the debilitating effects of the disease. The Rops took Baudelaire back to Brussels, and by 31 March paralysis had set in. By 4 April, Baudelaire was incapable of speaking coherently. Baudelaire was eventually moved into a hydrotherapeutic establishment, and it was there that he died on 31 August This aphasic state was special torture for him because he seemed to understand what was going on around him but was unable to express himself.
He had wanted to find a publisher for them before his stroke, and his friends organized themselves to bring about what had become a last wish.
Ever the perfectionist, Baudelaire wanted to oversee the production of the manuscript. He knew, however, that he was in no condition to do so. Though Baudelaire was accepted as a poet during his lifetime, his status with nineteenth-century critics was tenuous. Baudelaire is now an important figure in the literary canon. Critical articles and books about him abound; the W. Bandy Center for Baudelaire Studies at Vanderbilt University is devoted to recording all major publications on the author and his work.